What is Ventricular Septal Defect? Ventricular Septal defect is a hole (defect) in the wall that separates the lower chambers of the heart. The lower chambers of the heart are called the ventricles. The wall between them is called the ventricular septum. In the normal heart, the septum prevents blood from flowing directly from one ventricle to the other. In a heart with a VSD, blood can flow directly between the two ventricles. VSD is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect. As the fetus is growing, something occurs to affect heart development during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy, resulting in a VSD.
What are the Types of Ventricular Septal Defect?
Two basic types of VSD are:
Perimembranous VSD — an opening in the upper section of the ventricular septum, near the valves, occurs in 75 percent of all VSD cases.
Muscular VSD — An opening in the lower section of the ventricular septum occurs in up to 20 percent of all VSD cases.
What Cause Ventricular Septal Defect?
Heredity may play a role. Parents who have congenital heart defects are more likely to have a child with VSD than parents who do not have congenital heart defects. In some cases, VSD may be due to a defect in one or more genes or to chromosomal abnormalities.
What are the Symptoms of Ventricular Septal Defect?
The following are the most common symptoms of VSD. However, each patient may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
disinterest in feeding, or tiring while feeding
poor weight gain
The symptoms of VSD may resemble other medical conditions or heart problems.
How is the Preparation for Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery:
If the patient is taking aspirin, contact the cardiologist to ask when to discontinue taking the aspirin. Aspirin is generally discontinued 14 days prior to surgery to minimize the risk of excessive bleeding. However, there may be a medical reason to continue the aspirin, so it is important to check with the cardiologist.
If the patient is taking “blood thinners” such as Coumadin or Lovenox, please contact the surgeon. These patients may need to be hospitalized a few days prior to surgery to discontinue these medications and convert to Heparin prior to surgery. This decision will be coordinated between the patient, surgeon and cardiologist.
A cardiologist performs a physical exam and multiple tests will be performed to ensure the patient is well for surgery. A chest x-ray (CXR), an electrocardiogram (EKG), and lab work will be performed as part of the preoperative process.
All patients – whether they are admitted to the hospital or not - will be placed on “NPO” (nothing by mouth) status after midnight the night before surgery. Clear liquids may be allowed at the specific instructions of the anesthesiologist.
How is Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery Performed?
The surgery to close a Ventricular septal defect is done under general anesthesia so that your child will be asleep and feel no pain. The surgeon makes a cut down the center of the chest to reach the VSD.
The child is placed on a heart/lung bypass machine during surgery.
The heart is stopped, and the heart/lung machine takes over for the heart, pumping red blood throughout the body.
The heart/lung machine also brings oxygen-poor blood back to the machine where it picks up oxygen.
The surgeon uses a special patch or stitches to close the VSD.
The surgeon puts the patch over the VSD and sews it into place.
Once the repair is completed, the heart is restarted.
The child is taken off the heart/lung bypass machine.
The surgeon closes the skin incision.
How is the Follow up Post VSD Surgery?
People with repaired VSDs who do not have other heart problems and those with small, unrepaired, asymptomatic VSDs should have a regular examination by a cardiologist, but usually do not need to see an adult congenital heart disease specialist on a regular basis. Those who have other congenital abnormalities or experience cardiac complications after VSD repair, such as valve disease, coarctation of the aorta, or aortic regurgitation, or lung problems should continue to see a specialist in adult congenital heart disease.
What is the Success Rate of Ventricular Septal Defect?
Ventricular septal defect surgery did not become a widespread procedure until the 1960s, so long-term data on outcomes and life expectancy is only now being collected and analyzed. Available data indicate that adults with closed VSDs and without other heart or lung complications can expect to live a normal lifespan. In the 40 years that the operation has been widely used, about 6 percent of patients have required a re-operation to close small leaks that developed around the patch. So the success rate is 94 % which is considered to be good.
What are the Benefits of Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery?
Once fully recovered from surgery, most children are able to participate in normal activities.
Children who ate poorly before surgery often start to eat better and gain weight, and are more active.
Surgical repair of VentricularSeptal Defect is safe and has very few complications, as the surgeons are using sophisticated surgical equipment and techniques these days.
A big bonus of surgical repair of Ventricular Septal Defect is that effects of future episodes of infective endocarditis can be prevented. Most importantly, you will enjoy the peace of mind that your child is disease free and has no sequel to fear in the future.
What are the Risks of Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery?
Surgery carries with it some significant risks. Those include:
Arrhythmias requiring medications or pacemakers
Pleural pericardial effusions
What are the Alternatives to Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery?
Medications - Diuretics, Digoxin and antibiotics may be used as palliative measures to stabilize people with Ventricular Septal Defect.
Septal Occluder - This procedure is similar to Cardiac Catheterization used to implant a Stent in the coronary artery. In this procedure, an umbrella shaped mesh is inserted to occlude or block the Ventricular Septal Defect. This mesh is inserted via a blood vessel in the groin and is threaded through it with the help of a thin tube called catheter.
Why Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery in India?
Due to the high costs of medical treatment and surgery in the United States, the waiting lists in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada and the lack of high tech medical procedures in many third world countries, medical tourism is expected to blossom into a ten billion dollar business world-wide. Recognizing this trend Indian government, large corporations, hospitals, and doctors are flooding the medical tourism market with choices, and prices are dropping.
India boasts volumes of its excellently maintained healthcare providers by stringent government controls on the policies for control of promotion and advertisement, thus not visible much in news papers, magazines and electronic media. But certainly as good as other regional healthcare providers like Singapore and Thailand.
Many hospitals in India have set up international departments to cater especially to the international patients.
India is as competitive as Singapore in the quality of healthcare, through it world class facilities of hospitals and clinics, latest machines in healthcare and more over world class renowned surgeons and doctors that it has more in number then any regional healthcare providers.
Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery in India is available in following cities:
What is the Cost of Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery?
India is as competitive in cost as Thailand and much superior in terms of healthcare providers, healthcare infrastructure, English speaking staff, foreign trained specialist doctors, and strict government rulings on maintaining the high standards of healthcare delivery systems.
India is the most preferred medical tourism destination as it provides low cost treatment option for international medical tourists.
The cost of VSD surgery in India is almost ¼ of the cost that in UK, US and other developed countries.
Ventricular Septal Defect Surgery in India- Indian Healthguru Group: Indian Healthguru Group is one of the leading medical tourism companies in India providing ventricular septal defect surgery in India. You just have to send us a query regarding your Ventricular septal defect surgery and within 24 hours an assistant will contact you for further details and interaction. From that point everything will be taken care of by that assistant, like arranging VISA, accommodation, appointment with the doctor with round the clock services to make your medical tour hassle free. We provide well qualified and professional doctors, surgeons, physicians, and medical staff who aid you in recovery from your ailment and ensure a safe and healthy journey back home.
Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:
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