The human eye is a complex mechanism in many ways similar to a camera. Just as the camera records images on a film, the eye records them on a special layer called the retina. Just like the camera needs lenses to focus images on the film, the eye also has lenses to focus images on the retina. The eye has two lenses: the cornea and the “lens”. The cornea is a fixed focus lens. It simply bends light rays by a fixed amount. The lens is like an auto focus system. It changes its shape to focus images perfectly on the retina, so that images appear sharp and crisp. Sometimes when there is a mismatch between in these natural setups, it might require a treatment or an eye surgery.
What is Eye surgery?
Eye surgery, also known as Orogolomistician surgery or ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist. Eyes are one of the most important organs in the human body and vision is one of the most wonderful gifts. But often many people neglect the importance of eye care and do not pay proper attention towards eye care then comes the eye treatment or surgery in picture.
Types of Eye surgery:
The various types of Eye surgeries are listed below:
Eye muscle Surgery
Eye muscle surgery
Common Eye surgery procedures:
Refractive Surgery:It includes any procedure designed to treat the refractive errors myopia (nearsightedness), Hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. There are a number of refractive surgery treatments currently on the market; however, the techniques employed can vary greatly. Or in other words it is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses. This can include various methods of surgical remodeling of the cornea or cataract surgery. The most common methods today use Excimer lasers to reshape curvature of the cornea. Successful refractive eye surgery can reduce or cure common vision disorders such as myopia, Hyperopia and astigmatism. There are two basic types of corrective refractive surgery. One changes the curvature of the cornea (outer surface of the eye). The other changes the internal optics of the eye, either by replacing the natural lens of the eye or by using an intraocular lens in addition to the natural lens.
Catarct surgery: is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract. Metabolic changes of the crystalline lens fibers over time lead to the development of the cataract and loss of transparency, causing impairment or loss of vision. Many patients' first symptoms are strong glare from lights and small light sources at night, along with reduced acuity at low light levels. During cataract surgery, a patient's cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with a synthetic lens to restore the lens's transparency. Following surgical removal of the natural lens, an artificial intraocular lens implant is inserted (eye surgeons say that the lens is "implanted"). Cataract surgery is generally performed by an ophthalmologist (eye surgeon) in an ambulatory (rather than inpatient) setting, in a surgical center or hospital, using local anesthesia (either topical, peribulbar, or retrobulbar), usually causing little or no discomfort to the patient. Well over 90% of operations are successful in restoring useful vision, with a low complication rate. Day care, high volume, minimally invasive, small incision phacoemulsification with quick post-op recovery has become the standard of care in cataract surgery all over the world.
Glaucoma Surgery:Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP). There are many glaucoma surgeries, and variations or combinations of those surgeries, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous. The type of surgery your doctor recommends will depend on the type and severity of your glaucoma and the general health of your eye. Surgery can help lower pressure when medication is not sufficient, however it cannot reverse vision loss. Glaucoma cannot be prevented, but blindness due to glaucoma can be avoided, if detected early and treated properly and regularly. Both laser and conventional surgeries are performed to treat glaucoma. Surgery is the primary therapy for those with congenital glaucoma. Generally, these operations are a temporary solution, as there is not yet a cure for glaucoma.
Corneal Transplant:is used when vision is lost because the cornea has been damaged by disease or traumatic injury, and there are no other viable options. Some of the conditions that might require corneal transplant include the bulging outward of the cornea (keratoconus), a malfunction of the cornea's inner layer (Fuchs' dystrophy), and painful corneal swelling (pseudophakic bullous keratopathy). Other conditions that might make a corneal transplant necessary are tissue growth on the cornea (pterygium) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a skin disorder that can affect the eyes. Some of these conditions cause cloudiness of the cornea; others alter its natural curvature, which also can reduce vision quality. Injury to the cornea can occur because of chemical burns, mechanical trauma, or infection by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or protozoa. The herpes virus produces one of the more common infections leading to corneal transplant. Corneal transplants are used only when damage to the cornea is too severe to be treated with corrective lenses. Occasionally, corneal transplant is combined with other eye surgery such as cataract surgery to solve multiple eye problems with one procedure.
Vitreo-retinal Surgery:Vitreo-retinal surgery does not refer to one specific type of surgery. It refers to any surgical procedure that treats eye problems involving the retina, macula, and vitreous fluid. These vision disorders include macular degeneration, retinal detachment, and diabetic retinopathy. The retina is a tissue in the inner eye. It converts images that one sees into electric impulses that the brain can interpret. The macula is part of the retina that helps process central vision. Vitreous fluid fills the eyeball and helps it maintain its shape. Vitreoretinal surgery can treat a detached retina, which happens due to a retinal tear. Symptoms of retinal detachment may include flashes of light and spots that obstruct vision. Retinal detachment can occur due to an injury. It may also occur when the vitreous fluid pulls on the retina. For a Vitreo-retinal, the patient may be placed under general anesthesia. Vasectomies typically are highly successful in restoring or greatly improving a patient’s vision.
Laser surgery: Laser surgery is surgery using a laser to cut tissue instead of a scalpel. Examples include the use of a laser scalpel in otherwise conventional surgery, and soft tissue laser surgery, in which the laser beam vaporizes soft tissue with high water content. Laser resurfacing is a technique in which molecular bonds of a material are dissolved by a laser. Laser surgery is commonly used on the eye. Techniques used include LASIK, which is used to correct near- and far-sightedness in vision, and photorefractive keratectomy, a procedure which permanently reshapes the cornea using an Excimer laser to remove a small amount of tissue. Green laser surgery is used for the treatment/reduction of enlarged prostates. Laser surgery is much safer than normal surgery as it makes no physical contact so no infections are spread. Laser surgery is used not only for eye surgery but also in many other streams.
Oculoplastic surgery: Oculoplastic surgery is the cosmetic, corrective, and reconstructive surgery of the eye. It manages and repairs problems primarily related to the tissues or structures surrounding the eye, rather than the eyeball itself. These structures include the eyelids, the tear ducts, and the orbit (bony socket surrounding the eye). Ophthalmic plastic surgeons are board-certified ophthalmologists who have completed several years of additional, highly specialized training in plastic surgery. The person who performs oculoplastic surgery is called an oculoplastic surgeon. Oculoplastic surgeons complete the necessary schooling to become ophthalmologists, or medical doctors who treat eye-related conditions, but then go on to receive additional specialty training in plastic surgery. An oculoplastic surgeon is qualified to work on both the eye itself and its surrounding tissues. He focuses, however, on the tissues that surround and support the eyeball. Sometimes oculoplastic surgery is used to repair or correct a condition that affects the area around the eye. For example, a condition called entropion is marked by an eyelid that turns inward.
Eye muscle surgery: Eye muscle surgery is performed to weaken, strengthen, or reposition any of the extraocular muscles (small muscles) located on the surface of the eye that move the eyeball in all directions. The main purpose of eye muscle surgery is thus to restore straight eye alignment. The surgery is performed to align both eyes so that they gaze in the same direction and move together as a team; to improve appearance; and to promote the development of binocular vision in a young child. To achieve binocular vision, the eyes must align so that the location of the image on the retina of one eye corresponds to the location of the image on the retina of the other eye. In addition to being used to correct strabismus, eye muscle surgery is also performed to treat such other eye disorders as Nystagmus. Nystagmus is a condition in which one or both eyes move rapidly or oscillate; this condition can be improved by moving the eyes to the position of least oscillation.
Preparing for the surgery:
Each eye surgery procedure and each eye surgery patient is unique. Despite the uniqueness of each procedure, there are a number of universal tips that can help you better prepare for your surgery and speed up your recovery time. So here are the tips to help make your eye surgery procedure a successful one:
Take the extra time you need to find a reputable surgeon with extensive experience in your type of surgery.
Thoroughly research the procedure you will be undergoing before signing any consent forms.
Follow all of the pre-operative procedures recommended by your doctor.
Stop wearing contact lenses in advance of the surgery, as directed by your doctor.
Get a good night’s sleep the night before the surgery.
Make arrangements to have someone you trust drive you home from the surgery.
Know what side-effects you may experience before undergoing the procedure.
Take all medication as prescribed.
Avoid touching, rubbing, or bumping your eye while it is healing.
Avoid makeup, lotions, and creams while your eye is healing.
Stay away from medications that can interfere with your body’s natural healing process, such as steroids.
Give yourself time to recover from the surgery before jumping back into your busy life.
Post operative care- Eye surgery:
Here are few precautions you need to follow for at least 1 week post-surgery.
Try and avoid lifting heavy articles more than 20 pounds.
Avoid bending your waist unless you are bending your knees.
Avoid laborious physical activities like jogging or aerobics.
Excessive neck movements should be avoided.
While sleeping remember, that your head should be raised higher than your chest.
Advance Eye surgery:
LASIK Eye surgery: LASIK stands for laser in situ keratomileusis, which means using a laser underneath a corneal flap (in situ) to reshape the cornea (keratomileusis). This procedure utilizes a highly specialized laser (Excimer laser) designed to treat refractive errors, improve vision, and reduce or eliminate the need for glasses or contact lenses. During the LASIK procedure, a specially trained eye surgeon first creates a precise, thin hinged corneal flap using a microkeratome. The surgeon then pulls back the flap to expose the underlying corneal tissue, and then the Excimer laser ablates (reshapes) the cornea in a unique pre-specified pattern for each patient. The flap is then gently repositioned onto the underlying cornea without sutures.
Why Eye surgery in India: With the best of eye surgeons, the latest and highly sophisticated medical equipments and other facilities, India definitely makes for the best choice when it comes to eye care. With an annual increment rate of about 15%, the number of medical tourists in India is on a rise. Indian Government is soon going to introduce special medical visas for foreign tourists that will be helpful for those coming to India for ophthalmic care and other treatments. This visa will enable international patients to have access to finest medical care in the most recognized and specialized hospitals of the country.
India offers a growing number of private "centers of excellence" where the quality of care is as good as that of big-city hospitals abroad (for instance in the United States or Europe) and that are capable of delivering world class medical services at a remarkably lower cost. The health care industry estimates that several thousand foreign patients are treated in private hospitals in India each year. Patients can avoid lengthy waiting periods and high costs by choosing India as a destination for their treatment. The various eye surgeries in India are available at hospitals in the following cities with latest amenities and state-of-art-facilities.
The compassion shown by the Indian Ophthalmologists along with evidence based and innovative eye surgeries, comprehensive education and research-based prevention of common eye diseases – have earned Indian hospitals the gratitude of patients and their families.
Eye surgery cost in India: India offers outstanding eye surgical services at 60-80% less than prevailing USA rates. Even with travel expenses taken into account, the comprehensive medical tourism packages still provide a savings measured in the thousands of dollars for major procedures.
Procedure Cost (US$)
LASIK Eye surgery
Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:
Located in South Asia, bordered by Pakistan, Nepal, China and Bangladesh, India is South Asia's largest, sovereign, democratic republic. India has an edge over other countries when it comes to offering comprehensive, cost-effective and timely medical care: it also offers an exotic, adventure-filled or cultural -if you wish array of destinations to discover and revel in for the travelers. Indian cities like Mumbai, Hyderabad, Goa, Bangalore, Nagpur, Kerala, Delhi, Pune, Jaipur, Chennai, Gurgaon, and Chandigarh offers best medical tourism service.
Mumbai - A city quite unlike any other in the whole of India, Mumbai (previously named Bombay) is an island city, being located on Salsette Island, alongside the Arabian Sea. With an appealing coastline, many of Mumbai's top resorts and tourist attractions lie around its main beaches, which include both Juhu Beach and also Girgaum Chowpatty Beach, where evening funfairs provide plenty of atmosphere.
Hyderabad - Hyderabad city is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, in the region of Telangana. Hyderabad city is known for its rich history, food and its multi-lingual culture, both geographically and culturally. Founded in the year 1591 by fifth Qutb Shahi Ruler Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. Now known as the historicold city, home to the Charminar, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmallah Palace and Makkah Masjid, it lies on the southern bank of the river.
Goa – Goa, a small enclave on the West Coast of India is one of the best holiday destinations in the World. Famous for its long stretch of beaches dotted with shacks, it is a favorite destination for the European tourists who flock to Goa during the winter months. Swaying palms, white sands and sparkling waters: the three essential elements that attract 2 million visitors annually to Goa’s balmy shores are plentiful in this tiny, glorious slice of India
Bangalore - Bangalore, the capital of the Karnataka, is fifth largest city in India. Few Cities in the World has the power to attract and motivate a casual visitor to move there permanently. Bangalore is one of those rare cities, which makes people who are new to the City to call themselves proud Bangaloreans. Bangalore, with a wonderful climate is already a Pensioner's Paradise.
Nagpur - Capital of the "land of oranges" and geographically at the virtual centre of India, Nagpur is endowed with rich forest resources and in itself is the second greenest city in India. The forests around Nagpur are full of best quality teak plantations. Shopping in Nagpur may turn out to be a pleasant experience for the discerning shopper. Nagpur is designed specifically for its many tourists and families to avoid any small annoyances.
Kerala - The Land Kerala is a dramatic, narrow, leaf-shaped strip of land, flanked by the formidable Western Ghats on the east, and the Arabian Sea on the west. A land of unabashed wealth, its people are amongst the most progressive and literate of the Indian populace. This tropical spice garden has lured the Arabs, Chinese and Europeans for many centuries. Christianity and Judaism entered the subcontinent through the legendary white sand beaches of Kerala.
Delhi - Delhi the capital of India main point of arrival for overseas visitors, and the major transport hub. Delhi is just not a city but it is a book that narrates the history of India. The city was built and destroyed seven times and has been witness to the various events, which has brought India through the history books.
Pune - The city of Pune is situated in Maharashtra and is said to be the cultural capital of the state. Located at a distance of approximately 120 km from Mumbai, the city is one of major tourist destinations in India. The rich history, architecture and culture of the city makes it a must visit destination for the tourist coming to India.
Jaipur – The city of Jaipur, painted in pink, grasp the appreciation of every visitor. One can see that hoary charm still alive in the avenues of Jaipur. Jaipur offers World Class Medical Facilities, comparable with any of the western countries. It has state of the art Hospitals and the best qualified doctors.
Chennai – The Gateway to South India, Chennai is famous for its sandy beaches, parks and historic landmarks. With a very distinct culture, the people of Chennai have a special interest in music, dance and all other art forms of South India. Capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, Chennai has embraced both the new and the old with ease
Gurgaon – Gurgaon, the commercial capital of Haryana, is one of the most sought after destination for MNCs, Corporate, residents and Investors as it offers world class standard of living and globally comparable business address in the form of IT parks and Business Centers and along with that very prominent medical hub.
Chandigarh - Chandigarh is the best-planned city in India, with architecture which is world-renowned, and a quality of life, which is unparalleled. Chandigarh is a rare epitome of modernization co-existing with nature's preservation. It is here that the trees and plants are as much a part of the construction plans as the buildings and the roads.
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