What is a Hernia?:
A hernia occurs when the inside layers of the abdominal wall weaken then bulge or tear. The inner lining of the abdomen pushes through the weakened area to form a balloon-like sac. This, in turn, can cause a loop of intestine or abdominal tissue to slip into the sac, causing severe pain and other potentially serious health problems.
The weakened abdominal wall can be present at birth or may develop later in life. The most common site is the groin, but hernias can also form in other areas, such as the navel. If the lump can be gently pushed back through the abdominal wall, it is known as a reducible hernia. If the lump resists manual pressure, it is a non-reducible hernia, which can mean serious complications.
What are the Symptoms of Hernias?
Most people with hernias have a common set of signs and symptoms. Some of the symptoms are as follows;
An aching sensation on the abdomen or the groin that is more apparent when you are active, bending over or lifting things.
An obvious swelling beneath the skin of the abdomen or groin that is visible while standing up.
Most of the time the bulge can be pushed in or it goes back on its own when you lie down.
If the hernia becomes extremely painful and hard then it may be incarcerated or trapped. This means that the fat or loop of intestine is now stuck in the hernia and is in danger of becoming gangrenous. This is referred to as strangulation. If you suspect that your hernia maybe incarcerated or trapped, then you should seek medical help immediately.
What are the Different Types of Hernia?
A hernia can occur anywhere in your abdomen (the part of your body between the chest and the hips). There are several types of hernia:
Inguinal Hernia - It occurs when part of the bowel pushes through the abdomen into the groin (the area at the front of the body where your thighs meet your abdomen). It is more common in men than in women. In this, the intestine or the bladder protrudes through the abdominal wall or into the inguinal canal in the groin. About 80% of hernias are inguinal hernia.
Femoral Hernia - It occurs when fatty tissues push through into the groin, at the top of the inner thigh and appear as a fixed lump. A femoral hernia occurs when the intestine enters the canal carrying the femoral artery into the upper thigh. Femoral hernias are most common in women, especially those who are pregnant or obese.
Incisional Hernia - It occurs when fatty tissue pushes through a surgical wound in the abdomen that has not fully healed. This type is most common in elderly or overweight people who are inactive after abdominal surgery.
Umbilical Hernia - It occurs when fatty tissue pushes through the abdomen near the navel or belly button. it appears as a round lump of fat pushing the belly button outward. This is one of the most common hernias. Common in newborns, it also commonly afflicts obese women or those who have had many children.
Hiatal Hernia - It occurs when part of your stomach pushes up into your chest by squeezing through an opening in the diaphragm.
Epigastric Hernia - It occurs when fatty tissue pushes through your abdomen, between your navel and the lower part of your sternum (breastbone).
Spigelian Hernia - It occurs when part of your bowel pushes through your abdomen at the side of your stomach muscle, below your navel.
Muscle Hernia - It occurs when part of your muscle pushes through your abdomen and can also occur in the muscles in your leg, often as the result of a sports injury.
What are the Causes of Hernia? Usually, there is no obvious cause of a hernia. Sometimes hernias occur with heavy lifting. Hernias may be present at birth, but the bulging may not be noticeable until later in life. Some patients may have a family history of hernias.
Hernias can be seen in infants and children. This can happen when the lining around the abdominal organs does not close properly before birth. Some children may not have symptoms until they are adults.
Any activity or medical problem that increases pressure on the abdominal wall tissue and muscles may lead to a hernia, including Chronic constipation, straining to have bowel movements, Chronic cough, Cystic fibrosis, Enlarged prostate, straining to urinate, Heavy lifting, etc.
How is a Hernia Repaired?
There are several different procedures that can be used for fixing any specific type of hernia. In the open surgical approach, following appropriate anesthesia and sterilization of the surgical site, an incision is made over the area of the hernia and carried down carefully through the sequential tissue layers. This is to separate away all the normal tissue and define the margins of the hole or weakness. Once this has been achieved, the hole is then closed, usually by some combination of suture and a plastic mesh. When a repair is done by suture alone, the edges of the defect are pulled together, much like sewing a hole together in a piece of cloth. In order to provide a secure repair and avoid the stress on the adjacent tissue caused by pulling the hole closed, an alternative technique was developed which bridges the hole or weakness with a piece of plastic-like mesh or screen material. The mesh is a permanent material and, when sewn to the margins of the defect, it allows the body's normal healing process to incorporate it into the local structures. After the hernia repair is completed, the overlying tissues and skin are surgically closed, usually with absorbable sutures. More and more of hernia repairs are now being done using laparoscopic techniques.
What are the Different Types of Hernia Repair Surgery Procedure?
There are different types of procedures depending on the type of hernia.
Inguinal Hernia Repair
There are two surgical methods for inguinal hernia repair –
Open Technique - The most traditional and still the most common technique is to make an incision over the bulge and isolate
the hernia. Hernia repair through mesh has become a common technique. In children, young adults, and most women, mesh is not used in the repair. In these patients a strong repair can be achieved with stitches alone.
Laparoscopic Technique - In appropriate patients, repair of the hernia can be done from inside the abdomen with a laparoscope. This instrument is about as big around as the tip of your little finger, and has a lens with a light
at its tip. The operation is done under general anesthesia. The advantages of this technique are that there is less pain in the first 2 days, the return to normal activity is about 2-3 weeks, and that it may be suitable in persons who are overweight. It is an excellent operation for patients who have hernias on both sides and hernias that have recurred following an open repair.
Umbilical Hernia Repair -
Usually under general anesthesia, an incision is made below the umbilicus and the hole is repaired with sutures alone or with mesh. Some bruising and swelling should be expected. Sometimes umbilical hernias can be repaired using laparoscopic technique that is done through small keyhole incisions, resulting in much less surgical trauma and postoperative pain.
cisional Hernia Repairr - The surgery to repair is done using general anesthetic and requires that the patient will be admitted to the hospital for up to five days. Mesh is usually part of the repair, and drains are placed in the wound for a few days to take away any fluid. As with most hernia operations, it takes about a month to get back to heavy physical work or exercise. A newer approach is using the laparoscopic technique. This leads to shorter hospital stay and a faster return to normal activity.
Epigastric Hernia Repairr - Since the defects of epigastric hernias cannot be seen from inside the abdominal cavity, they need to be repaired in an open operation (rather than laparoscopically). Surgery involves repair of the area of weakness and return of the abdominal contents back into their normal position. If the hole in the muscle is less than 2cm it is stitched however usually a mesh is used to reinforce the area. Often small to moderate Epigastric Hernia repair can be performed under local anaesthetic.
Femoral Hernia Repairr -
A mesh, placed under local anaesthetic, avoids the need for cutting muscle or tendon, and eliminates high-tension stitching. This advanced technique is suited for repair of Femoral Hernias and usually allows for patient discharge on the same day, within hours of surgery.
Some hernias can be managed without an operation, particularly if they are painless. However, there is still a small risk of incarceration and care needs to be taken when performing heavy lifting. A hernia belt or truss can control the symptoms of an inguinal hernia allowing you to avoid or postpone surgery.
How is the Recovery after Hernia Repair Surgery?
The amount of post-operative discomfort you will experience following surgery varies depending on the size of your hernia, type of repair and individual level of tolerance. Half the patients report they require no pain medication whatsoever. Activities can be resumed without restriction.
What are the Benefits of Hernia Repair Surgery?
Developments in hernia surgery mean patients can enjoy rapid recovery with a very low risk of recurrence. Repair of the hernia eliminates pain and the risk of incarceration. Laparoscopic procedure results in less postoperative discomfort and pain, reduced recovery time that allows earlier return to full activity, easier repair of a recurrent hernia. It also decreases the incidence of recurrence.
Almost all hernia repairs are performed as an outpatient or might require a short overnight hospital stay. Most patients are discharged from the hospital the next day. Many doctors recommend surgery to repair hernia because it prevents strangulation. Hernia repair with mesh has proved to be a very effective means of repair.
What are the Risks associated with Hernia Repair Surgery:
As with any surgery, there are risks such as bleeding, infection, or an adverse reaction to anesthesia. Other risks include injury to the bowel or a recurrence of the hernia.
Hernia Repair Surgery in India: Indian hospitals have most advanced techniques and use the most modern methods for Hernia Repair. There are many highly skilled consultants, surgeons who use the most up to date, specialized techniques. These surgeons successfully discharge each case they handle safely and comfortably. Most of the hospitals in India have state-of-the-art facility that provides the latest techniques for hernia repair. India offers all of these services in a comfortable setting where the staff is friendly and compassionate. The surgeons in India deal very efficiently with all the doubts and fears that a patient may have.
Cities in India that offers Hernia Repair Surgery at some of the best hospitals are;
Cost of Hernia Repair Surgery In India:
Indianfacilitates a plethora of services to the medical tourists, which includes, a hassle free and discounted travel option. India offers a significantly lower cost for hernia repair and treatment. Surgery rates in U.S and UK are most of the times very expensive and beyond one’s budget, for such people low cost Hernia Repair Surgery in India can be quite a relief. In India, hernia surgery is available for a fraction of the cost of that in the developed countries.
Following table will give you an idea about the cost difference between India and other countries;
Cost in India
Cost in UK
Cost in USA
Laparoscopic Hernia Repair Surgery
Open Hernia Repair Surgery
Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:
Located in South Asia, bordered by Pakistan, Nepal, China and Bangladesh, India is South Asia's largest, sovereign, democratic republic. India has an edge over other countries when it comes to offering comprehensive, cost-effective and timely medical care: it also offers an exotic, adventure-filled or cultural -if you wish array of destinations to discover and revel in for the travelers. Indian cities like Mumbai, Hyderabad, Goa, Bangalore, Nagpur, Kerala, Delhi, Pune, Jaipur, Chennai, Gurgaon, and Chandigarh offers best medical tourism service.
Mumbai - Formerly known as Bombay, is the commercial & financial capital city of India. Mumbai is famous for many things, including its thriving Bollywood film industry, teeming bazaars, colonial-style buildings, Art Deco structures and a superb choice of restaurants, often being rated as the dining capital of India. The tourist district of Colaba in Mumbai is a great place to start exploring this great city.
Hyderabad – Hyderabad city is a great place to visit in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The place has witnessed a continuous growth for last many years. Hyderabad has become a tourist hotspot following ever increasing number of tourists during past few years. Hyderabad has a well-founded reputation as one of the safest cities in the world.
Goa - The country's smallest state and famed for its colonial Portuguese and Catholic past, most tourists visit Goa for its endless selection of sandy beaches and coastal attractions. Standing proudly next to the Arabian Sea, Goa is a particularly compact state and often feels like a large town, being easy to travel. Around Goa, tourists will soon realize that the state has much more to offer than simply stunning beaches, fishing, water scooters, windsurfing and scuba diving.
Bangalore - Beauty lies in the eyes of beholder and if you want to see one of the most beautiful places in India then Bangalore is the word for it. Bangalore has earned sobriquets like 'Silicon Valley of India', 'Pub Capital of India', and 'City of Gardens'. Pleasant climate with colorful gardens with lakes and glittering nightlife, Bangalore has made its own attraction for travelers as one of the most charming cities in India,
Nagpur - Nagpur is the largest city in central India, but with its friendly atmosphere and dependable transportation, you’ll instantly feel at home. The city of Nagpur has a well-built infrastructure, is a clean and affluent city which makes a good jumping-off point for a series of trips into the far eastern corner of Maharashtra..
Kerala - Welcome to Kerala, state in India's southern tip and a state known as God's Own Country. Kerala is one of the ten 'Paradises Found' by the National Geographic Traveler, for its diverse geography and overwhelming greenery. It is a land much acclaimed for the contemporary nature of its cultural ethos, and much appreciated for the soothing, rejuvenating paradise that it is.
Delhi - Delhi, the capital of India is situated in the northern part of the country. Apart from being the capital of India, Delhi is also the travel hub of northern India. It serves as an excellent base for visiting the colorful state of Rajasthan, and Agra, the city of the Taj Mahal, is less than three hours away. Discover the many tales behind Delhi’s ancient, bewitching existence. Feel the excitement of stepping foot on a piece of the world’s oldest land!
Pune - Pune is the eighth largest city in the India state of Maharashtra. The city derives its name from Punya Nagari, which means 'the city of virtuous deeds.'Pune or the 'Queen of Deccan' is known for its educational, research and development institutions. This beautiful city has many exotic locales attracting innumerable tourists.
Jaipur – Jaipur is located in India and attracts a flurry of tourists from all over the world. Sited within eastern Rajasthan, North India, the city of Jaipur is famed for its hilltop fortresses, magnificent royal palaces and historic pink-painted sandstone architecture, earning it the affectionate nickname of the 'Pink City'.
Chennai - Chennai formerly known as Madras is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is famous for its culture and tradition. Chennai hosts a large cultural event, which includes performances by hundreds of artists. The city has a vibrant theatre scene and is an important centre for the Bharatanatyam, a classical dance form.
Gurgaon – It is one of the four important satellite cities of the National Capital Region and is often referred to as the 'Millennium City.' Gurgaon has recently emerged as the latest hub for Medical Tourism. Apart from being IT hub and a favorite haunt for MNC offices, the city has a number of world class hospitals that not only treat Indian citizens but also people from outside.
Chandigarh - Chandigarh is a rare epitome of modernization co-existing with nature's preservation. It is here that the trees and plants are as much a part of the construction plans as the buildings and the roads. India’s first planned city, Chandigarh is a rich, prosperous, spic and span, green city rightly called “THE CITY BEAUTIFUL”.
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